E.: high qualitya more social pretend play, more positive affect, less CG 1 rated difficult

4 yrs: Children, low SES 7 , in good quality care a less aggressive, no effect on higher SES 7 .(2) aggressiveness of easy children positively affect by high quality DC 6 . Difficult children no decrease in aggressiveness in high quality setting (3) for boys, good qual care associated w/ less internalizing/ social withdrawal problems more ego strength/effectance

  1. better acad skills for boys only
  2. better social skills both girls boys
  3. fewer behavior problems both girls boys

M.E.: High qualitya more compliant at care, more self-regulation in lab. Longit (Preschool): M. Longit (Kindergarten): high qualitya less CG 1 rating of hostility

Process Qual (Long), age partialled out: Preschool: CG 1 involvement/investmenta observed social play, social pretend play, positive affect, less CG 1 rate difficult hesitant. Kindergarten: CG 1 involvementa less parent ratings of internalizing externalizing; less CG 1 rate of distract, hostile, higher rate verbal IQ, consideration.

Quantity, type Maternal PPVT-R, child gender, HOME maternal stimulation Bayley MDI , Bracken School Readiness, Macarthur CDI; Reynell Dev Lang Positive caregiving language stimulation significantly related to cognitive language outcomes at 24 36 mos

HMR: 1) selection variables, 2) child gender, 3) family envir, 4) quantity type of care, 5) positive caregiving (PC), 6) frequency of language stimulation (LS) – see summary sheet

ECERS, CIS, UCLA ECOF, AIS, PPS, IEOS, STRS CG 1 education, CG 1 exper 4 , gender, ethnicity, beliefs Maternal education, child gender, child ethnicity PPVT-R, WJ-R (letter-word, math), CBI, ASB –Children who attended CC 5 w/ higher quality classroom practices had better language math skills from the preschool years into elementary school.

–Children w/ closer CG 1 -child relationships in CC 5 had better classroom social thinking skills, language ability, math skills from the preschool years into elementary school.

–Better quality CC 4 was more strongly related to better math skills fewer problem behaviors from the preschool years through second grade fro children whose mothers had Alaska online installment lenders less education.

Better care qualitya 1) more friendly fewer unfriendly interact; 2) higher observer ratings pos affect social comp, 3) fewer peer nominations of shy. No prediction of Parent ratings

b QUALITY MEASURE ACRONYMS ALPHABATIZED: AIS: Adult Involvement Scale; CIS: Caregiver Interaction Scale; ECOF: UCLA Early Childhood Observation Form; ECERS: Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale; ECOI: Early Childhood Observation Instrument; IEOS: Instructional Environment Observation Scales; ITERS: Infant-Toddler Environmental Scale; ORCE: Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment; STRS: Student-Teacher Relationship Scale

Table 5

c CHILD DEVELOPMENTAL OUTCOME MEASURE ACRONYMS ALPHABATIZED: ASBI: Adaptive Social Behavior Inventory; ASB: Teacher Assessment of Social Behavior; BCL: Behavior Checklist; Boehm: Test of Basic Skills; BPI: Behavior Problems Index; BRS: Behavior Rating Scale; BSQ: Behavior Screening Questionnaire; Buck I/E Scale: Buck Internalizer/Externalizer Scale; CBCL: Child Behavior Checklist; CBI: Child Behavior Inventory; CBP: Child Behavior Profile; CTBS: Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills; MacArthur CDI: Communication Development Inventory; MDI: Mental Development Index (Bayley II); MSCA: McCartney Scale of Children’s Abilities; ORCE: Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment; PBQ: Preschool Behavior Questionnaire; PEI: Parent as Educator Interview PIAT: Peabody Individual Achievement Test; PPS: Peer Play Scale; PPVT-R: Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Revised; PRS: Peer Relations Scale; RCSA: Rutter Child Scales (A B); SCS: Social Competence Scale; SICD: Sequence Inventory of Communication Development; SRA: Science Research Associates Achievement Battery; TBQ: Toddler Behavior Questionnaire; WJ-R: Woodcock-Johnson Tests of Achievement-Revised

1 CG: Caregiver, 2 ECE: Early Childhood Education, 3 C:A Ratio: Child:Adult Ratio, 4 Exp: Experience, 5 CC: Child Care, 6 DC: Child Development, 7 SES: Socioeconomic Status

Table 6

1. Associations between cumulative positive caregiving and child adjustment at 36 months, controlling for site, mother education, income-to-needs, mother psychological adjustment, home quality, child gender, percent time in centers, and hours in care.

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